Cannabidiol, or CBD, is a powerful active ingredient found in cannabis, also known as marijuana. It is the second most common compound in the drug, following delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Marijuana contains more than 400 different active components, and THC and CBD are just two of its 60 different cannabinoid molecules. THC (dronabinol) is the active ingredient in approved medications such as Marinol capsules (and generics) and Syndros oral solution.
CBD is also the active ingredient in the approved drug Epidiolex. Outside of the United States, Sativex, which uses CBD as an active ingredient, is approved for muscle spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis and for cancer-related pain. Research has shown that CBD may have a positive effect on low-frequency activity and functional connectivity in the brain of adults with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Ingredients derived from parts of the cannabis plant that do not contain THC or CBD may be marketed as dietary supplements.
These effects may be due to the opposing effects of CBD and THC on brain activity patterns in key regions involved in schizophrenia, such as the striatum, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex. Depending on the plant, cannabidiol (CBD) can make up around 40% of cannabis extracts, while delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main active ingredient. The ingredients derived from hemp seeds that are subject to these GRAS notices contain only traces of THC and CBD, which can be collected during harvesting and processing when in contact with other parts of the plant. Ingredients derived from parts of the cannabis plant that do not contain THC or CBD could be added to foods without falling under 301 (ll).
There is increasing evidence that non-psychoactive compounds in marijuana, such as CBD, could provide a new treatment for chronic pain. Although THC and endocanynoids (produced in the body) activate CB1 and CB2 receptors (receptors coupled to G proteins), CBD does not directly stimulate them.